After decades of remaining at about 60%, the gender pay ratio started to rise in the late 1970s. The earnings of women working full time are now 82% of men’s on average. Francine Blau addresses these questions: What factors help to explain this increase in the gender pay ratio? Why does a considerable gap remain? What policies might be useful in reducing the gender pay gap? Francine Blau, Frances Perkins Professor of Industrial and Labor Relations and professor of economics at Cornell University, has served as vice president of the American Economic Association (AEA), and chair of the AEA committee on the status of women in the economics profession. In 2010, she became the first woman to receive the prestigious IZA Prize for outstanding academic achievement in the field of labor economics. Blau has written extensively on gender issues, wage inequality, immigration, and international comparisons of labor-market outcomes.